Effect of faecal waste on groundwater quality in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, southern Nigeria: a guide for water quality assessment in environmental monitoring. – A. N. Ugbaja, T. N. Nganje and I. E.Bassey
Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses were conducted on eight discharging wells/borehole in Calabar South L.G.A, Southeastern. Nigeria for two season (wet and Dry).This was to determine the impact of nearness of pit latrines on ground water quality. All water samples were collected from boreholes within 100 meters from functional pit latrines within the area of study. Results obtained showed that insitu parameters, temperature, conductivity, pH, Eh and Do are within the World Health Organization’s (WHO) limits for portable water. The concentration of NO3- (0.213 – 10.630mg/l), NO2- (1.2×10-3- 0.027mg/l) NH4+ (0.001-5.182mg/l), PO43- (0.0007-0.122mg/l), SO42-(0.29-8.701mg/l) and CI- (5.330-71.12mg/l) were found to be within the Water Quality Index (WQI) designation. TBC (27.75-764.83count/ml) and TFC (0-5.5count/100ml) were however found to be grossly higher than the WHO limits. The mean values from analyzed sites showed higher concentrations of TBC and TFC, indicating that ground water from the study area near pit latrines are threatened by faecal wastes. TBC and TFC for 5 out of 8 study sites were found to be higher than W.H.O standard throughout period of sampling, indicating that the aquifer was bacteriologically active for most period of the year.