INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES

VOL. 12, (special edition) (2019) ISSN 0331-6785

P.O. Box 3620 University of Calabar Post Office, Calabar, Nigeria
E-mail: jnas_unical@yahoo.com
Website : www.Ijnas-crs.info

Editorial Board

C.S. OKEREKE – EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
A.N. UGBAJA – ASSISTANT EDITOR

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
B.I. ITA (Chemistry)
A.E. EDET (Earth Sciences)
M. EJA (Microbiology)
S.B. EKANEM (Zoology)
I.A. EKPO (Genetics & Biotechnology)
Z. LIPCSEY (Mathematics, Statistics)
I.I. ARIKPO (Computer Science)
A. NKANG (Botany)
A.E. AKPAN (Physics)

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

D.E. AGBONGLAHOR
Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
S.B. ANDERSEN
Department of Crop Science, The Royal Veterinary & Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, Frederiksberg DK-1871, Denmark.
M.U. AUDU
Department of Mathematics, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.
J.G. EGENDU
Crop Research institute, Bunso, Ghana.
T.A. EMOKPAE
Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria.
F. FANSO
Department of Chemistry, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

K. Mc WATTERS
Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin GA 30223, U.S.A.
B. J. MERKEL
Institute of Geology, University of Technology, Gustav Zeuner Street 12, Freiberg 09596, Germany.
A.E. OGEZI
Department of Geology & Mining, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.
P. N. OKEKE
Center for Basic Space Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
A. I. ONUCHUKWU
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
I.B. ONUKOGU
Department of Statistics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
K. M. ONUOHA
Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
I. B. OSAZUWA
Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
R. J. ROBERTS
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, U.K.
J. C. SCOTT
Defense Evaluation Research Agency, Winfrith Technology Center, Winfrith, Newburg, Dorset DT2 8XJ, U.K.
Z. WANG
Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, China.
R. WORDEN
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Liverpool, 4 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GP, U.K.

References
Cite only published references and list them alphabetically at the end of the text. Titles of books should be in italics. Following are some examples of format:

a) Journal articles
Weaver, J. T. (1973). The electromagnetic field within a discontinuous conductor with reference to geomagnetic micropulsations near a coastline. Can. J. Physics, 41:484 495.

b) Books
Mackay, K. M. and Mackay R. A. (1976). Introduction to modern Inorganic chemistry. 2nd edition. International Textbook Company Limited, London. 305 pp.

c) Chapter in Books
Freeze, R. A., Smith, A. L, de Mrsily, G., and Massman, J. W. (1988). Some uncertainties about uncertainty. In: Proceedings of the AECL/DOE ’87 Conference on Geostatistical, sensitivity, and uncertainty methods for groundwater flow and Radionuclide Transport Modeling. San Francisco, California: 231-260.
In each of a) – c) above, all lines below the first are indented five spaces.
Reference should be made to the World List of Scientific Periodicals for abbreviations of periodicals. In case of doubt, give the full name of the journal.
Citations in the text should be placed within parentheses using the author/date system. For example:
“it has been noted (Weaver, 1973) that …” or “Weaver (1973) noted that …” or “it has been noted that … (Weaver, 1973 ).
For more than two authors use et al., for example: (Freeze et al., 1988) or Freeze et al. (1988).
Citations for authors listing more than one paper in the same year should be differentiated by the letters a, b, c, etc., following the year.

Submission of manuscripts
Manuscripts should be submitted in triplicate, including 3 copies of the figures and tables, to the Editor-in chief. The correspondence address is:
Editor-in-chief,
International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences,
Office. 1. PTDF Building, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Physical Sciences
P. O. Box 3620,
University of Calabar Post Office,
Calabar, Nigeria.
E-mail: jnas_unical@yahoo.co.uk
The final version of the accepted manuscripts should be submitted on computer discs (CD-R or CD-RW) using Microsoft Word as the word processing program.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Aims and scope
International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences (ISSN 0331-6785) is published by the Faculty of Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. It is aimed at promoting and publishing research in all aspects of the sciences. It will also foster research cooperation amongst scientists.
Standard papers reporting original research, review articles, and short communications will be considered for publication. In addition, special articles and announcements, editorials, and letters to the editor are also welcome.
The Faculty, the Editor-in-Chief and the Associate Editors cannot be held responsible for the opinions given and the statements made in the articles published in the journal, the responsibility resting with the authors.

Subscriptions
The journal is published bi-annually per volume (two issues) at US$ 180.00. All subscriptions orders, including enquiries on local rates and requests for specimen copies should be sent to the Business Editor at the Editorial office. The correspondence address is:
The Business Editor
International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences
Room 210 Biological Science Building
P.O. Box 3620
University of Calabar Post Office
Calabar, Nigeria.

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Enquiries should be sent to the Business Editor at the Editorial office.

NOTES FOR AUTHORS

Typescripts
Papers submitted to international journal of natural and applied sciences should be in clear concise English normally around 6 – 10 printed pages (about 4,000 to 6,500 words plus figures/tables). Manuscripts should be typewritten on one side of A4 – size paper, with double-spacing and one-inch (2.5cm) margins all round.
Standard papers should consist of: Abstract; Key words (<10); Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements; References.
All articles are subject to review. Submission of an article implies that has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere and that, if accepted, the authors will transfer their copyright to international journal of natural and applied sciences. Authors are therefore responsible for obtaining written permission to use materials for which they do not have the copyright.

Units
SI units are preferred. If the English units are used, equivalent SI units should follow in parentheses. Mathematical expressions must be legible and may be handwritten; special symbols should be defined. All equations must be numbered.

Titles and headings
Titles should be concise but informative (<50 characters) and be on a separate title page together with a short running title and the abstract (<200 words). Titles and title headings of sections should not be underlined. Rather, underlining should be used to indicate names of plants and animals.
Principal headings should be in capital at the center of the page. Headings of the next lower rank should be in small letters adjacent to the left-hand margin. However, the first word of headings and proper nouns should be capitalized.
The title of the paper and the list of authors should be provided on a separate sheet with a clear indication of the one to whom all correspondence should be directed. The list should give the e-mail address and phone contact of the corresponding author.

Tables and figures
Tables and figures (diagrams, photographs, etc.) should be on separate sheets and both should be self-explanatory. Each set should be numbered separately in Arabic numerals, according to their sequence in the text. Their desired location in the text should be clearly indicated. Specifically for figures, use Figure at the start of a sentence and Fig., elsewhere. Titles of table should be given at the tops of the listings whereas those of figures should be listed on a separate sheet. Figure number and authors names should be written lightly in pencil on each figure.
Originals of diagrams should be drawn in black ink using good quality tracing medium or white board. Black and white photographs should be glossy. Colour photographs may be printed by special arrangement. However, only legible copies of illustrations should accompany the manuscript, as International journal of natural and applied sciences
cannot accept responsibility for their safety. Authors should therefore retain the original illustrations until they are required to submit them with a revised manuscript.

Charges
The submission of manuscript should include a handling fee of Ten thousand five hundred naira (N10,500) only. Authors of accepted manuscripts will also be required to pay a publication fee and, where necessary, make additional payments to cover extra page charges and/or costs of production of colour illustrations. All payments must be made in bank drafts drawn in favour of International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, at Calabar.

Proofs
Two galley proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for review and return (within a few weeks of receipt). Alterations must be restricted to printer’s errors, as all other alterations will be charged to the authors.
Twenty-five copies of reprints and copies of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author for distribution to co-authors.