Distribution of ABO/RH-D blood groups and morphogenetic traits in Calabar Municipality. – M. E. Kooffreh and C.E. Ajagu
Blood groups and genetic traits are useful genetic markers in families and population studies providing useful information for anthropologists, Medics and Evolutionary Biologists. Five morphogenetic traits of simple inheritance, ABO and Rhesus blood phenotypes were investigated to assess the prevalence among ethnic groups and gender of 418 residents of Calabar Municipality. Blood from subjects were analyzed for the ABO and Rhesus blood groups using standard conventional methods, genetic traits were assessed by observation. The highest prevalence was blood group O with 63.6% (n=226) followed by A with 18.2% (n=75), B with 14.8% (n=62) and AB with 3.3% (n=14) and the total prevalence followed the trend O > A > B> AB. The distribution of ABO blood group varied among different ethnic group and gender. Majority of the population were rhesus positive 97.1% . For the morphogenetic traits studied, non-tongue rollers (cRT) had the highest prevalence 238 (88.9%) over tongue rollers (CRT) which is the dominant trait with the frequency 180 (43.1%). The ability to fold tongue (CFT) was more prevalent in the study population with a frequency of 274 (65.6%) over non tongue folders (cFT) with a frequency of 144 (27.3%). It was also observed that right hand claspers (RHC) which is a dominant trait had the highest prevalence of 214 (51.2%) over left hand claspers (LHC) with prevalence 204 (48.8%). The prevalence of earlobe attachment showed that attached earlobe (AEL) which is a dominant trait had a very low frequency of 62 (14.8%) and those with detached earlobe (DEL) had a very high frequency of 356 (85.2%). Widows peak (WP) is a dominant trait and found mostly in males showed a low frequency of 38 (9.1%) while straight line hair shape (wP) had a high frequency of 380 (90.9%). The distribution of morphogenetic traits among individuals in Calabar affirms the existence of ethnic variations in different geographical locations.