Bioremediation of petroleum polluted soil (a review). – C. B. Iquatt, O. A. Oyewole and O. P. Abioye
In the last decade, the prevention and clean-up of polluted soil and water have become worldwide environmental priority. Remediation may be physical, chemical or biological. Bioremediation is slow and specific. It is cost effective, it is a natural process; although microbial seeding is inevitable, and it converts the hydrocarbons into harmless by-products. The extent of bioremediation can be measured by gravimetric method, CO2 evolution method and gas-liquid chromatography method. Bioremediation strategies involve biostimulation, bioaugmentation and mineralization. Bacterial cultures degrade oil faster than fungi because bacteria have a shorter generation time than fungi. Petrophiles utilize pollutants as food by breaking them down using their intracellular oxygenase enzymes. The optimal strategies for any given site depend on the nature and concentration of the contaminants, pH, substrate toxicity, oxygen, moisture content, temperature, nutritional factor, salinity, sunlight, and the extent of contamination.
Keywords: Bioremediation, petroleum, soil.